Information and examples for this page have been adapted from a PDF prepared by The Learning Centre, The University of New South Wales © 2007.
A summary is an overview of a page, passage or text. The main idea is given, but details, examples and formalities are left out. Used with longer texts, the main aim of summarising is to reduce or condense a text to it’s most important ideas.
for more info go to............
To paraphrase, follow the steps below:
Read the original text until you grasp its meaning; then set it aside.
- Using your memory, write down the main points or concepts. Do not copy the text verbatim.
- Change the structure of the text by varying the opening, changing the order of sentences, lengthening or shortening sentences, etc.
- Replace keywords within the sentences with synonyms or phrases with similar meanings.
- Check your notes against the original to ensure you have not accidentally plagiarized.
The automotive industry has not shown good judgment in designing automotive features that distract drivers. A classic example is the use of a touch-sensitive screen to replace al the controls for radios, tape/CD players, and heating/cooling. Although an interesting technology, such devices require that the driver take his eyes off the road.
- Tom Magliozzi and Ray Magliozzi, Letter to a Massachusetts state senator, p.3
Radio show hosts Tom and Ray Magliozzi argue that the automotive industry has not demonstrated good judgment in devising car features that distract drivers. One feature is a touch-sensitive screen that replaced controls for radios, tape/CD players, and heating/cooling. Although the technology is interesting, such devices require that a driver look away from the road (3).
Radio show hosts Tom and Ray Magliozzi claim that motor vehicle manufacturers do not always design features with safety in mind. For example, when designers replaced radio, CD player, and temperature control knobs with touch-sensitive panels, they were forgetting one thing: To use the panels, drivers would need to take their eyes off the road (3).
Examples taken from, Hacker, Diana. Rules for Writers. 5th ed. Boston: Beford/St. Martin’s, 2004.
Plagiarism is a serious issue. It can cause you to fail. You can plagiarize even without copying word for word!
- Using someone else's words as your own.
- Using some else's ideas as your own.
- Not giving credit to whoever came up with the idea or words. (Also known as not citing your sources.)
- Very important to avoid no matter what the source of your information.
- Cheating, whether it's intentional or not!
How to avoid plagiarizing:
- Take notes on your reading. Be sure to paraphrase or summarize; never copy word for word unless you plan to use quotes.
- Never copy and paste from an online source into your document, unless you are using quotes and citing the author.
- Even when paraphrasing, you should cite the source of an idea unless it is common knowledge. You will know an idea is common knowledge if you can find it in at least three sources.
- No more than 10% of your paper should be directly quoted.
- When taking notes, keep track of your sources so you will remember them when you start writing.
- If you aren't sure, cite the source!
It is important to remember:
- Plagiarism destroys your academic integrity.
- You learn nothing by copying or claiming other's work as your own.
- You can plagiarize accidentally- this is why careful note taking is a must. (See the section on taking notes.)
- Submitting your own work for more than one class without permission is also plagiarism.
- Plagiarism is considered intellectual theft. You can be thrown out of college for the offense. Journalists have been fired for it.
Direct quote → Cite
|Paraphrase or summary of ideas → Cite|
Paraphrase of commonly known facts → Don't need to cite!
Your own ideas → Don't need to cite!